Young cassowaries are brown and have buffy stripes. They may also peck, barge or head-butt. Its always possible to be caught off guard, however, so its worth knowing how to handle yourself if you do ever come face to face with an aggressive Cassowary. The commonest injuries they cause in humans are puncture wounds, lacerations and bone fractures. Attacks on horses and cows have also been recorded and C. casuarius is anecdotally credited with having killed small horses, though confirmed attacks have only involved lacerations (Kofron 2003). These giant birds are not afraid to use their claws either and are described as unpredictable. When facing trouble a cassowary will claw and kick at potential threats, which has led to multiple human casualties. Cassowaries certainly have killed human beings. A tension pneumothorax may cause a shifting of the trachea away from the middle of the neck to one side, however this is a late sign, as is jugular venous distension. Why are people hesitant to trust a COVID-19 vaccine? The bird's owner, Marvin Hajos, 75, made the initial call to 911 Friday about 10 a.m. The best way to avoid an attack is to give these birds the space they deserve and never attempt to feed or harass them. They are the heaviest bird in Australia. Kofron (1999) reported that such behaviour was not recorded in his study area prior to 1985. Quite the contrary: like most animals, these birds would much rather avoid conflict, only choosing fight over "flight" as a last resort if they feel their lives or those of their young are endangered. He just called me and said, Send an ambulance, send an ambulance, send an ambulance.. Why the cassowary is the world's most dangerous bird By Adam Millward Published 15 April 2019 Last Friday (12 April 2019), a 75-year-old man was attacked by (at least) one of the exotic birds that he rears on his property in Florida, USA. After one of the teenagers fell to the ground, the cassowary struck his neck with its large claw that can measure up to 5 inches in length. I've also encountered references to the death of a zookeeper named Luke James who was apparently killed by a captive cassowary, but have only read about this online and am not sure as to its reliability (readers: please let me know if have access to any further information on this case). Check the patients front and back for additional injuries. [18], Several functions for the casque have been proposed. Cassowaries are not raised for food in the US, but are sought after by collectors. Enter your email in the box below to get the most mind-blowing animal stories and videos delivered directly to your inbox every day. They can be up to 2 meters (6ft) tall and weigh up to 60kg (130lb), with black body feathers and bright blue heads and necks. Cassowaries can run up to 31 miles per hour (50 km) and jump seven feet in the air from a standstill, which should give you a picture of how powerful their legs are! What makes a Guinness World Records title? [20] The male cassowary defends a territory of about 7km2 (1,700 acres) for himself. What's next for abortion rights in America? Stay away from eagles nests! Cassowaries are wild animals that should not be thought of as friendly. [33][34], In February 2011, Cyclone Yasi destroyed a large area of cassowary habitat, endangering 200 of the birds about 10% of the total Australian population. Every person in the wilderness should have a tourniquet in their first aid kit as well as the ability to jury-rig at least one more. It is not advised that captive cassowaries be kept with other species as they may attack and kill them. Eagles can leave you with a 2-inch gash in your skin. Due to concern for pneumothorax from puncture wounds and lacerations to his right chest, needle decompression was performed. 3. 75% of these were from cassowaries that had been fed by people. If you're wearing a backpack or bag, move it to your front in order to shield your chest. Cassowaries are very wary of humans, but if provoked, they are capable of inflicting serious, even fatal, injuries to both dogs and people. The cassowary will use these claws to kick the victims powerfully to defend itself. Journal of Zoology 249, 375-381. The Top 9 Largest Flying Birds in the World By Wingspan. The Best Nest Boxes Birds Will Actually Use for 2022. WATCH: Sharks biting alligators, the most epic lion battles, and MUCH more. The exotic birds in question weren't parrots or canaries, however Along with animals such as alligators and wild cats, cassowaries are listed as Class II wildlife in Florida, owing to the risk that they pose. Remaining causes of death included hunting (five cases), entanglement in wire (one case), the removal of cassowaries that attacked humans (four cases), and natural causes (18 cases), including tuberculosis (four cases). And for all the hype surrounding cassowary aggression, let us also not forget that it is frequently we speeding along in our vehicles who are a danger to them. Wild Cassowaries are most likely to attack when defending themselves or their eggs and chicks. Keep your distance particularly if an adult is guarding eggs or with chicks. Explore our digital archive back to 1845, including articles by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners. Original reporting and incisive analysis, direct from the Guardian every morning. The cassowary slit his throat with . Cassowaries become most aggressive when they are fed by humans. . He mostly works on Cretaceous dinosaurs and pterosaurs but has an avid interest in all things tetrapod. [23] The latter three are disputed by biologist Andrew Mack, whose personal observation suggests that the casque amplifies deep sounds. This is far worse for these birds than it is for humans, as many are killed by vehicles and dogs every year. [40] The Kalam people considered themselves related to cassowaries, and did not classify them as birds, but as kin. The feet are at the bottom of long legs that bring some cassowary species to a height of nearly six feet tall. Click to see more animals in the Active Wild Online Zoo Quick Cassowary Facts. A sucking chest wound often leads to a more serious type of pneumothorax, a tension pneumothorax, in which the air goes into the lung and gets trapped. The bird's owner, Marvin Hajos -. They also peck and sometimes even headbutt their victim with the large casque on top of their head. The victim, whose name was not released, was apparently breeding the birds, state wildlife officials said. There are three species and the Casuarius genus, and the infamous Southern Cassowary (C. casuarius) is the largest and best known. These birds are large and potentially dangerous animals that can be particularly aggressive when they become comfortable around humans. Treat suspected tension pneumothorax with immediate needle decompression (>6 cm long angiocath) in the fourth intercostal space mid-axillary line (preferred in the ATLS 2019 update) or 2nd intercostal space mid-clavicular line.8 If no angiocath is available, a finger thoracostomy can be done in the fourth intercostal space mid-axillary line to relieve pressure as a life-saving maneuver.8, Massive hemothorax can cause similar symptoms to a tension pneumothorax. The bird was a flightless, exotic cassowary being bred. [22] (Full Diet, Habits and Behavior), Are Eagles Dangerous? Cassowaries have been covered a few times before on Tet Zoo. If a cassowary feels threatened, it will leap up and strike out with these dagger-like weapons, inflicting potentially lethal wounds to internal organs and causing severe bleeding. A cassowary, a giant bird with long claws on each foot, killed its owner after he fell in the backyard of his Gainesville, Florida, home, officials told CNN. Typically, all cassowaries are shy birds that are found in the deep forest. The dog later died from an apparent intestinal rupture. A cassowary is a large flightless bird native to Australia and Papua New Guinea. This article is about the genus of birds. GAINESVILLE, Fla.--. Apply an antibiotic cream or ointment and cover the bite with a clean bandage. Tourniquet application performed emergently on an extremity must be done for significant arterial bleeding but is rarely needed for venous bleeding unless it is a large proximal vessel. "Cassowaries are the heaviest bird in Australia, and the Southern cassowary is the second-heaviest in the world (the world's heaviest bird is the ostrich)," says Schwartz. Use a tourniquet on extremities if the bleeding doesnt stop with pressure. Bird watchers should always treat these modern-day dinosaurs with the respect they deserve. Apparently, the young man was kicked in the neck while trying to protect his dog. "With that in mind, they also have very small wings. Animal bites: First aid. Peripheral temperatures read lower than core temperatures by one-to-two degrees, and 20 percent of fevers in the emergency department are initially missed when only peripheral temperatures are utilized.9. * Bits of children have been discovered beneath the nests of African crowned eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus, but were not totally sure that the eagles did the killing. They also attack to defend a food source or to protect themselves and their young. Tragically, a captive specimen killed a 75-year-old man from Florida in 2019. A cassowary, a giant bird with long claws on each foot, killed its owner after he fell in the backyard of his Gainesville, Florida, home, officials told CNN. She Died the Next Day. This only encourages them to approach people and danger zones such as busy roads, If travelling to an area where cassowaries are known to live, consider leaving your dog at home, or at least keeping your pet on a leash. Cassowary claws are dagger-like and dangerous Cassowaries and ostriches (the latter is the largest bird in the world) are the only two bird species worldwide that have caused human deaths by physical attack. The southern cassowary of the far north Queensland rain forests is not well studied, and the northern and dwarf cassowaries even less so. The inner claw is unique - these dagger-like nails are straighter and measure four inches (10 cm) or more in length! The older McClean then tripped and fell to the ground. They also fluff out their feathers to make themselves appear as large as possible while making a series of loud, roaring, and grunting calls. Hernandez JM, Upadhye S. Do peripheral thermometers accurately correlate to core body temperature. These attacks were presumably territorial in motive. This patch prevents air from entering the wound but allows trapped air to escape on exhalation. [30], The southern cassowary is endangered in Queensland. The Florida man killed in a bizarre attack earlier this year by one of the world's deadliest birds suffered deep puncture wounds and slashing cuts from the animal's sharp . Immediately call for help if you are chased by a Cassowary and use anything at your disposal to protect your abdomen, neck, and face. The cassowary's three-toed foot looks like a dinosaur foot, armored with scales and huge talons. The patient should be evaluated first for massive bleeding. Why dont the Electoral College and popular vote always match up? A cassowary, one of the world's most dangerous birds, in attack mode Guardian The San Diego zoo's website calls cassowaries the world's most dangerous bird with a 10cm dagger-like claw on. Territoriality is one of their most important characteristics. Published 2021. Aggression and fights between Cassowaries are common, however. These species are recognised: Most authorities consider the taxonomic classification above to be monotypic, but several subspecies of each have been described,[16] and some of them have even been suggested as separate species, e.g., C. (b) papuanus. So what should you do if you meet a cassowary in the wild (or indeed on your property)? Though size varies across the three different species (see end of article), cassowaries can stand up to 2 m (6 ft 6 in) tall and weigh as much as 60 kg (132 lb) the equivalent of six mute swans, which are the heftiest birds native to the UK. A study conducted by Christopher Kofron in 1999 stated that there are 221 recorded attacks by . These birds fight by kicking each other with their sharp claws and roaring loudly. The cause for 14 cases was indicated as "for unknown reasons". The bird's owner, a 75-year-old man who had raised the animal, was apparently clawed to death after he fell to the ground.[5][47][48][49][50][51]. While he was on the ground, the cassowary kicked him in the neck, opening a 1.25-centimetre (12in) wound that may have severed his jugular vein. There are nearly 2,000 different species! Serious injuries resulting from cassowary attacks are most likely to occur if the person is. They will also kick or chase cars, again because they appear to associate the human occupants with food. Puncture wounds and lacerations can affect the airway. The second more recent incident occurred in Florida in 2019. Cassowaries are unique and fascinating flightless birds from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Commercially designed tourniquets are most effective.6 If commercial tourniquets are not available, a blood pressure cuff can be inflated in place of a tourniquet until the blood flow stops. Roots, Clive. A large, flightless bird called the world's "most dangerous" attacked and killed its owner when the man fell on his farm in Florida, authorities said Saturday. Case histories of attacks by the Southern cassowary in Queensland. The truth is that cassowaries lives in remote areas where they rarely encounter humans. Ok, were going to get you some help, the dispatcher assured Hajos. 1:22 GAINESVILLE A cassowary, a large emu-like flightless bird, killed a man Friday near Alachua. [18] A fossil species was reported from Australia, but for reasons of biogeography, this assignment is not certain, and it might belong to the prehistoric Emuarius, which was a genus of cassowary-like primitive emus. Even after the deadly attack, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has enacted no new rules or restrictions about owning them. Cassowaries attack humans for only a few reasons. Kofron CP. ET, according to CNN affiliate WCJB. But its all too easy to exaggerate how dangerous they are, and we shouldnt forget that an enormous number of interactions occur that dont end in aggression or injury. Hajos was not required to have a permit to breed the birds, which are native to Australia, New Guinea or other South Pacific islands. The three-toed feet are thick and powerful, equipped with a lethal dagger-like claw up to 12 cm (4.7 in) on the inner toe. Galvagno SM, Nahmias JT, Young DA. This task falls to the male bird alone, and he is more than up to the job. Before 2019, the last known death by a cassowary occurred in 1926 when 16-year-old hunter, Phillip McClean, received a fatal blow to his neck. Cassowaries have earned the title as one of the most dangerous birds in the world, and for a good reason too! Claims that jogging incites cassowaries to attack (supposedly because the sound of running feet imitates a foot-stamping rival cassowary) do not withstand scrutiny as walking people have been attacked more frequently than joggers. If you have Tranexamic acid available, use it within the first three hours after injury. In the average person with no health problems, a single collapsed lung isnt fatal. [31], Hand feeding cassowaries poses a significant threat to their survival because it lures them into suburban areas. Cassowaries are usually shy and elusive birds that avoid contact with humans, so people generally have little to fear. Cassowaries are usually shy and elusive birds that avoid contact with humans, so people generally have little to fear. There are no reliable measurements of the Cassowarys kicking power. The cassowary has often been labeled "the world's most dangerous bird". Snooze and you win! Attacks to humans and domestic animals by the southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) in Queensland, Australia. These birds can become very aggressive when they lose their fear of humans. A puncture wound into the chest cavity can cause a pneumothorax, the collapse of a lung. McDonald L. Breeder killed by his large Australian pet bird that attacked him with its four inch dagger-like claws. Dominique Mosbergen. 2023 - Bird Fact. In four of the seven previously documented attacks resulting in serious injury, the cassowary jumped on top of the victim.2 This likely occurred in this case based on the number of lacerations and abrasions on the body. Advanced Trauma Life Support Update 2019: Management and Applications for Adults and Special Populations. I write SEO content and graphic design. Few documented Cassowary attacks have resulted in serious injury or death. This is often the case with the females pursuing the males in ritualistic chasing behaviours that generally terminate in water. In fact, the deadliest animals of them all are no bigger than your thumbnail. Today, its time to revisit the Tet Zoo archives, and post this (now very old) section of text on cassowaries. [31] They then studied 140 cases of cassowary mortality, and found that motor-vehicle strikes accounted for 55% of the deaths, and dog attacks produced another 18%. The boy died of his injuries shortly thereafter. My name is Rebecca and I've been a Professional Freelancer for almost a decade. One such bird killed its owner in Florida. Caged birds are regularly bereft of their fresh plumes.[21]. These birds are potentially dangerous and should be treated with caution and respect, should you encounter one in the wild. On April 12, 2019, a 75-year-old male went into the enclosure where two southern cassowaries were kept to collect an egg, when the bird attacked. The sensational tragedy drew international attention because of its peculiar circumstances. There are three species of cassowary, all of which are native to Australasia. Habitat loss and fragmentation is the primary cause of decline. Continue reading with a Scientific American subscription. The bird kicked the younger boy, who fell and ran away as his older brother struck the bird. Bird Quiz - 13,700 People Couldn't Ace This Quiz, Watch a Bald Eagle Harass and Dive Bomb an Adult Grizzly, Tiny Crab Nearly Drowns a Large Bald Eagle in Impressive Fight, Meet One of the Smartest (and Naughtiest) Birds On Earth, Watch an Eagle Attack A Trespassing RC Glider In Their Territory, Cassowary Feet Guide: All About their Foot, Talons, and Claws. Thanks for reading Scientific American. If the claw of the cassowary vaguely reminds you of something out of Jurassic Park, theres good reason for that! Ill finish with one last observation. The female approaches drumming slowly. Besides fruits, their diet includes flowers, fungi, snails, insects, frogs, birds, fish, rats, mice, and carrion. Place the patient in the recovery position (on their side) with the injured side down. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 49, 339-342. It can even lead to lethal wounds to internal organs and bleeding. Bird watchers should always treat these modern-day dinosaurs with the respect they deserve. [7] The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus had introduced the genus Casuarius in the sixth edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1748,[8] but Linnaeus dropped the genus in the important tenth edition of 1758 and put the southern cassowary together with the common ostrich and the greater rhea in the genus Struthio. Individual specimens must even be kept in separate enclosures, due to their solitary and aggressive nature. At times passive, at times fierce, cassowaries are known to attack humansusually for food-motivated reasonsand when using their talons these skirmishes have been known to be fatal. Unlike the emu, which will live with other sympatric species, such as kangaroos, in "mixed Australian fauna" displays, the cassowary does not cohabit well among its own kind. Cassowary Attack: Utilizing the MARCH Mnemonic in Rare Events, Use a Mnemonic Device to Assess Difficult Airways, New Documentation Mnemonic and Rubric Substantially Improved Documentation Performance, Two FDNY Ambulances in Collision; Four EMTs Suffer Minor Injuries, Documents Detail EMTs Failure to Aid Tyre Nichols, New Course Lets Bystanders Be the Help Until Help Arrives, Dont Sacrifice Nuance and Throw Ambulances Under the Bus, International Prehospital Medicine Institute Literature Review, March 2023. GET IN TOUCH WITH A RECORD SPECIALIST (Opens in a new window), The animal from which great whites flee: 5 killer records held by orcas. Close up of the head of a Southern Cassowary. Published 2019. Emergency medical services (EMS) arrived and placed a tourniquet above the brachial artery injury on his right arm. San Diego Zoo website. Those reports include a minute-by-minute account of the ultimately unsuccessful efforts to revive and save him. Cassowaries have a reputation for being dangerous to people and domestic animals. These birds fight for territorial reasons, so simply retreating is usually enough to end the conflict. Wilderness medicine society practice guidelines for basic wound management in the austere environment: 2014 update. In some cases, another male may approach and run off the first male. [42], This assessment of the danger posed by cassowaries has been repeated in print by authors, including Gregory S. Paul[43] and Jared Diamond. The second more recent incident occurred in Florida in 2019. Wild Cassowaries are most likely to attack when defending themselves or their eggs and chicks. Cassowary. In May 2008, an eagle attacked a young boy and mangled his body. Kofron, C. P. 2003. Fruit, even items as large as bananas and apples, is swallowed whole. Border crisis: Whats happening at the US-Mexico border? Often they are kept until they become nearly grown and someone gets hurt. Injury by these claws can be lethal to other animals including dogs and even humans. [20] They can also be easily spotted in some national parks such as Mellwraith Range National Park, Paluma Range National Park, and Jardine National Park in Australia. [4] A fourth but extinct species is represented by the pygmy cassowary. Cassowaries (from Malay: kasuari)[12] are part of the ratite group, which also includes the emu, rheas, ostriches, and kiwi, as well as the extinct moas and elephant birds. [9][10] As the publication date of Linnaeus's sixth edition was before the 1758 starting point of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Brisson, and not Linnaeus, is considered the authority for the genus.[11]. Check out the Tet Zoo podcast at! The San Diego zoos website calls cassowaries the worlds most dangerous bird with a 10cm dagger-like claw on each foot. Three species are extant: The most common, the southern cassowary,[4] is the third-tallest and second-heaviest living bird, smaller only than the ostrich and emu. These birds will flee from danger, although they are also well equipped to defend themselves with powerful kicks and sharp claws. Cassowaries are known for their sharp, dagger-shaped claws. Close inspection of the Cassowarys large, three-toed foot reveals a sharp claw on the end of each digit. Powerful legs help the cassowary run up to 31 miles per hour (50km/h) through the dense forest underbrush, the website says. Cassowaries are predominantly frugivorous, but omnivorous opportunistically when small prey is available. The patient remained in critical condition in the emergency department where he received mass transfusion protocol. Image credit: . Using this incisor claw, they can stab and disembowel animals and humans with their impressive attack . After man calls 911 and dies, experts say he made a fatal mistake near the worlds most dangerous bird. Where trees are dropping fruit, cassowaries come in and feed, with each bird defending a tree from others for a few days. The last-known victim was 16-year-old hunter Phillip McClean, who tripped while fleeing from a bird in Australia in April 1926. If subspecies are recognised, Weltvogelpark Walsrode has C. b. westermanni and C. u. rufotinctus. On mainland Australia, the most recent recorded fatality occurred in April 1926 when 16-year-old Phillip McClean received an injury to the throat after running from a cassowary and falling to the ground. He had multiple irregular, linear, and curvilinear abrasions and lacerations on his face, neck, trunk, and extremities that were bandaged in route. There is evidence that the cassowary may have been domesticated by humans thousands of years before the chicken. Most incidents involving dogs concern a dog approaching or pursuing a cassowary; the cassowary, when possible, then faces at least one of the dogs, kicks it, and the dog is either lacerated or bodily punctured by the cassowary's foot claws. The young males later go off to find a territory of their own. In most cases, however, you will need to face the threat head-on and prepare for the worst. Females lay three to eight large, bright green or pale green-blue eggs in each clutch into a heap of leaf litter prepared by the male. 2023 Scientific American, a Division of Nature America, Inc. It was when McClean was on the ground that he received a fatal blow to the neck. By far the greatest number of attacks (109) involved soliciting of food by the cassowary. So when you see the claws of a cassowary, theyre adapted for defense. 71% of the time the bird chased or charged the victim. [20], Cassowaries feed on the fruit of several hundred rainforest species and usually pass viable seeds in large, dense scats. Hajos was taken to hospital by paramedics, where he . )", 10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[1062:LVBCCS]2.0.CO;2, "The taxonomic status of Casuarius bennetti papuanus and C. b. westermanni", Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Images and movies of the southern cassowary, C4 Community for Coastal and Cassowary Conservation, Video: Cassowary with 3 chicks drinking water at Elantra Resort, Mission Beach,, Higher-level bird taxa restricted to the Australasia-Pacific region, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Articles containing Tok Pisin-language text, Articles containing Indonesian-language text, Articles containing Malay (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2022, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2022, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Montage of three species; left to right: southern cassowary, northern cassowary and dwarf cassowary, This page was last edited on 14 February 2023, at 21:41. The casque's shape and size, up to 18cm (7in), is species-dependent. Give Light and the People Will Find Their Own Way, South Florida Sports Headlines Newsletter. Cassowaries can be aggressive towards humans and other animals like dogs. The southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius), . Are Cassowaries aggressive to other birds? McCleans death in 1926 was not the result of an unprovoked attack: he had struck the bird with the intention of killing it and had then fled; he also had a dog with him (Kofron 1999, 2003). Condor If you've ever been to the zoo, you have probably seen a condor. Cassowary feet have three toes each with claws on the end (more on those in a moment). A bird with claws rivaling Freddy Krueger's. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. Two teenagers attacked a cassowary leading to one being struck in the neck with the cassowaries claw. They are known to disperse seeds over distances greater than a kilometre, thus playing an important role in the ecosystem. As recently as 2019, a Florida man died from a cassowary attack. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Contrary to earlier findings, the hollow inside of the casque is spanned with fine fibers. Woman Who Crashed into Responders, Killing PA Firefighter, Gets Prison, Three Apparent Gas Explosions at San Bernardino (CA) Mountain Homes, Enid (OK) Fire Department Begins SWAT Medic Program to Assist Police, Lufthansa Flight Diverted after Turbulence, Seven Hospitalized, FDNY EMS Providers Win COVID-19-Linked Free Speech Lawsuit, Coronavirus Origins Still a Mystery Three Years into Pandemic. Such birds can stand over 6 feet tall. [20] The eggs measure about 9 by 14cm (3.5 by 5.5in) only ostrich and emu eggs are larger. Cassowaries can run at up to 50km/h (30mph) through the dense forest and can jump up to 1.5m (4ft 11in). . They are good swimmers, crossing wide rivers and swimming in the sea. This case shocked the world when it made the headlines and further cemented the Cassowarys title as the worlds most dangerous bird. Stay calm and focused while slowly backing away from the bird. Adult Cassowaries have few natural enemies, although their eggs and chicks are vulnerable to many reptilian and mammalian predators. Alachua County Sheriff's Office spokesman Lt. Brett Rhodenizer identified the man as. Cassowaries Have Casques On Their Heads That Grow With Age 15% of the time they kicked. Garbage and other vegetable food is fed to them, and they live for years in such enclosures; in some areas, their plumage is still as valuable as shell money. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at, The Integrated Maniraptoran, Part 3: Feathers Did Not Evolve in an Aerodynamic Context, Walter Rothschild and the rise and fall of Sclaters cassowary, Getting a major chapter on birds ALL birds into a major book on dinosaurs, The ghosts of extinct birds in modern ecosystems, Controversies from the world of ratite and tinamou evolution (part I), Ratites in trees: the evolution of ostriches and kin, and the repeated evolution of flightlessness (ratite evolution part II). did kirk herbstreit win a national championship, shooting in waynesboro ms last night, marco products plumbing,
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